adfsdf

NY Academy of Sciences: Skeletal remains of King Richard III reportedly discovered

bones A team of scientists in the UK recently confirmed that skeletal remains discovered beneath a parking lot in Leicester belong to King Richard III. Richard Buckley, lead archaeologist from the University of Leicester, asserts this is "beyond reasonable doubt," based on genetic and historical forensic evidence.

However, some skepticism regarding the DNA evidence is "entirely appropriate," says Dr. Timothy Bestor, Professor of Genetics and Development at Columbia University Medical Center. The DNA tests involve comparing 300 nucleotide-long regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) between the excavated bone samples and living descendents of King Richard III's sister. Because the mitochondrial genome is transmitted exclusively from mother to offspring, with no paternal input, matrilineal patterns of descent can normally be distinguished based on comparisons of mtDNA control regions. (This post from the Human Genome Project explains how genetic markers—specific sections in the genetic code that vary between people—can be used in identification.) In this case, cautions Dr. Bestor, there are four particularly complicating factors.

The first is the quality of the DNA samples. After 500 years or more in a wet environment like England's, "the microbes are going to degrade the DNA. It’s just food to them," says Dr. Bestor. The risk of sample contamination is also high.

Secondly, the English aristocracy reproduced within a closed gene pool in order to preserve lineages. This inbreeding results in consanguinity. Because of this, Dr. Bestor stresses, "you may have the same mitochondrial haplotype, but that does not guarantee a lineal descent from a given individual."

Another confounding factor is that, in the 17-25 generations separating King Richard III’s sister from her extant relatives, there is a fair chance that children of deceased parents may have been adopted by their parents’ siblings somewhere along the way. After all, medieval life expectancies were short. Such adoptions may have been kept private and excluded from historical genealogical records.

Dr. Bestor also points out that the genetic sequences and statistical data are yet to be released. However, he adds more optimistically, "the historical evidence is quite compelling."

Forensic examination of the bones showed they belonged to a slender, adult male with scoliosis in his 20s or 30s. King Richard III was killed at the age of 32 and described as "hunchbacked." Furthermore, carbon dating indicates the bones date to 1455-1540, consistent with King Richard III's death in 1485. Traces of battle injuries were also found on the bones, "one likely inflicted from behind by an assailant bearing a halberd, a medieval weapon consisting of an axe blade topped with a spike," according to this National Geographic article.

The announcement that King Richard III—famously vilified in the eponymous Shakespeare play—had been found and identified has prompted a flurry of debate about historical assumptions, as well as a new territorial battle over the sovereign's final resting place.

Source http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/ColumbiaUniversityMedicalCenterNewsroom/~3/MZQcQ4O3dQY/

Other Research News

Dr. Neal Halfon
Jan 14, 2013

Childhood obesity linked to more immediate health problems than previously thought

By Amy Albin January 14, 2013 Category: Health Sciences Dr. Neal Halfon While a great deal of… read more
Default Image
Mar 07, 2013

Child marriages: 39,000 every day

HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Thu, 07 Mar 2013 16:53:07 GMT Server: MII-APC/2.3.11 Accept-Ranges:… read more
Civitelli named president of bone, mineral society
Oct 22, 2013

Civitelli named president of bone, mineral society

Roberto Civitelli, MD, has been elected president of the American Society for Bone and Mineral… read more
Default Image
Feb 20, 2013

Anderson underscores need for cancer research funding at Washington briefing

Ken Anderson, MD, director of the Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center at Dana-Farber Cancer… read more
Researchers Find How Key Cancer Switch May Hide from Therapy
May 07, 2013

Researchers Find How Key Cancer Switch May Hide from Therapy

Madison, Wisconsin - Medical researchers in the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and… read more
Default Image
Aug 22, 2013

Positive Exposure Gallery Coming to Ohio State

​ Rick Guidotti, director and photographer of Positive Exposure, will present to medical students,… read more
jamaneurology
Sep 03, 2013

Following A Mediterranean Diet Not Associated With Delay To Clinical Onset Of Huntington Disease

Adhering to a Mediterranean-type diet (MedDi) does not appear associated with the time to clinical… read more
UPMC’s Financial Results for First Nine Months of Fiscal Year Continue to Reflect Changing Health Care Market
May 09, 2013

UPMC’s Financial Results for First Nine Months of Fiscal Year Continue to Reflect Changing Health Care Market

UPMC’s operating revenues grew by $368 million to nearly $7.6 billion, with an operating income of… read more
Default Image
May 14, 2013

Brain Imaging Studies Reveal Neurobiology of Eating Disorders

Current treatments for anorexia and bulimia nervosa, which afflict an estimated 10 to 24 million… read more
Default Image
Jun 12, 2013

IU studies find workplace and financial stress lead to poor health choices

Last modified: Wednesday, June 12, 2013 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE June 12, 2013 BLOOMINGTON, Ind. --… read more

www.bet365.com best odds.

Look revie here - Online betting full information by artbetting.net
Reviw on bokmaker Number 1 in uk w.artbetting.net William Hill
Full Reviw on best bokmaker - Ladbrokes l.artbetting.net full information