adfsdf

NY Academy of Sciences: Skeletal remains of King Richard III reportedly discovered

bones A team of scientists in the UK recently confirmed that skeletal remains discovered beneath a parking lot in Leicester belong to King Richard III. Richard Buckley, lead archaeologist from the University of Leicester, asserts this is "beyond reasonable doubt," based on genetic and historical forensic evidence.

However, some skepticism regarding the DNA evidence is "entirely appropriate," says Dr. Timothy Bestor, Professor of Genetics and Development at Columbia University Medical Center. The DNA tests involve comparing 300 nucleotide-long regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) between the excavated bone samples and living descendents of King Richard III's sister. Because the mitochondrial genome is transmitted exclusively from mother to offspring, with no paternal input, matrilineal patterns of descent can normally be distinguished based on comparisons of mtDNA control regions. (This post from the Human Genome Project explains how genetic markers—specific sections in the genetic code that vary between people—can be used in identification.) In this case, cautions Dr. Bestor, there are four particularly complicating factors.

The first is the quality of the DNA samples. After 500 years or more in a wet environment like England's, "the microbes are going to degrade the DNA. It’s just food to them," says Dr. Bestor. The risk of sample contamination is also high.

Secondly, the English aristocracy reproduced within a closed gene pool in order to preserve lineages. This inbreeding results in consanguinity. Because of this, Dr. Bestor stresses, "you may have the same mitochondrial haplotype, but that does not guarantee a lineal descent from a given individual."

Another confounding factor is that, in the 17-25 generations separating King Richard III’s sister from her extant relatives, there is a fair chance that children of deceased parents may have been adopted by their parents’ siblings somewhere along the way. After all, medieval life expectancies were short. Such adoptions may have been kept private and excluded from historical genealogical records.

Dr. Bestor also points out that the genetic sequences and statistical data are yet to be released. However, he adds more optimistically, "the historical evidence is quite compelling."

Forensic examination of the bones showed they belonged to a slender, adult male with scoliosis in his 20s or 30s. King Richard III was killed at the age of 32 and described as "hunchbacked." Furthermore, carbon dating indicates the bones date to 1455-1540, consistent with King Richard III's death in 1485. Traces of battle injuries were also found on the bones, "one likely inflicted from behind by an assailant bearing a halberd, a medieval weapon consisting of an axe blade topped with a spike," according to this National Geographic article.

The announcement that King Richard III—famously vilified in the eponymous Shakespeare play—had been found and identified has prompted a flurry of debate about historical assumptions, as well as a new territorial battle over the sovereign's final resting place.

Source http://feedproxy.google.com/~r/ColumbiaUniversityMedicalCenterNewsroom/~3/MZQcQ4O3dQY/

Other Research News

QM researcher explains aircraft noise and heart disease discovery
Oct 09, 2013

QM researcher explains aircraft noise and heart disease discovery

Exposure to high levels of aircraft noise is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular… read more
Thomas Jessell, PhD
Feb 28, 2013

Tom Jessell Wins Prestigious Neuroscience Award

Dr. Jessell Selected as the 2013 Edward M. Scolnick Prize in Neuroscience from MIT’s McGovern… read more
No Smoking Sign
Jun 22, 2013

Prenatal Smoke Exposure Could Harm Children’s Auditory System

New findings demonstrate that in utero exposure to tobacco smoke could be harmful to the auditory… read more
Gary Smith, Ph.D., in the MStem Cell lab
Nov 14, 2013

Five years after Michigan vote on human embryonic stem cells, U-M effort is in full swing

ANN ARBOR, Mich. — Five years ago this month, Michigan voters opened the door for a full range of… read more
Vivian G. Cheung, M.D. headshot
Oct 19, 2011

Institute of Medicine Elects Three New Members from Penn

PHILADELPHIA – Three professors from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of… read more
Default Image
May 31, 2013

On board Mars Express, in orbit around the Red Planet

HTTP/1.1 200 OK Connection: Keep-Alive Content-Length: 60615 Date: Fri, 31 May 2013 12:56:56… read more
Tony Taliaferro
Feb 21, 2013

In Memoriam: Anthony Taliaferro

Tony Taliaferro Members of the UCSF community are saddened by the loss of former UCSF web… read more
Default Image
Sep 25, 2013

WHO Statement on the Third Meeting of the IHR Emergency Committee concerning MERS-CoV

HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Tue, 08 Oct 2013 13:48:46 GMT Server: MII-APC/2.3.30 Accept-Ranges:… read more
Trial Garden Hosts Annual Open House
Aug 14, 2013

Trial Garden Hosts Annual Open House

August 14, 2013 - News Release The University of Guelph will hold its annual trial garden open… read more
First-Ever Partners in Primary Care Summit Shares Lessons From the Field
Oct 22, 2012

First-Ever Partners in Primary Care Summit Shares Lessons From the Field

Patricia Yollin on October 22, 2012 The first-ever UCSF and Partners Primary Care Summit brought… read more

www.bet365.com best odds.

Look revie here - Online betting full information by artbetting.net
Reviw on bokmaker Number 1 in uk w.artbetting.net William Hill
Full Reviw on best bokmaker - Ladbrokes l.artbetting.net full information